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  • What are basic concepts of Personal Property Security in Canada?
     
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  • Creditors, Suppliers and Security Breaches

    Once upon a time, all the suppliers had to worry about what was the credit of their customers and the legal effectiveness of the security liens that they took on inventories. Now, debtors and creditors alike, for that matter, live under the constant threat of security breaches which can have consequences of a material order of magnitude. As a lawyer advising payments companies, I thought it would be interesting to discuss security breaches ...

     
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  • Identity Theft - Practical tips for credit professionals

    Every year, identity theft results in millions of dollars of reported losses for Canadians. This has serious implications for credit professionals when it comes to the collection, protection, usage and disposal of the information they gather on their customers. Whether your company accepts payment by credit card, by wire transfer, via e-commerce or by the ageless paper-based cheque method, you need to ensure that your department plays its part in having the necessary checks and balances in place.

     
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  • Overview of Proposed PIPEDA Amendments

    On May 25, 2010, the Minister of Industry tabled amendments to the federal private sector privacy legislation, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA). PIPEDA was introduced in 2001 and has been applicable to many private sector enterprises since 2004.

     
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  • Court Declines to Approve Sale of Assets as Part of Proposal Proceedings

    In the decision of Justice Cumming In the Matter of the Proposal of Hypnotic Clubs Inc. (“Hypnotic” or the “Debtor”) the court dismissed a motion by the Debtor for a sale of its assets pursuant to s.65.13 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (“BIA”).

     
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  • Suing a Foreigner? Keep Control of the Case with a Forum Selection Clause

    In the world of cross-border litigation, I can tell you that prevention is worth much more than a pound of cure. Battles over where a case is to be litigated are common, and can be so protracted and costly that the parties never reach a determination of the merits of the case. Such battles are common because generally there are tremendous strategic advantages to litigating the case in one’s home jurisdiction, and disadvantages to litigating the case in one's opponent's jurisdiction.

     
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  • CRA Trust Overrides Contractual Right To Set Off

    In a recent decision involving the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), and the Caisse populaire du bon Conseil (Caisse), the Supreme Court of Canada, (SCC) considered whether a lender’s contractual rights in respect of its customer’s term deposit account could be overridden by a deemed statutory trust in favor of the Crown.

    The issue was whether the Caisse, by virtue of its contractual arrangement with its customer, Camvrac Enterprises Inc, held an iron clad security interest over the proceeds of its deposit account that could not be overruled.

     
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  • Factoring Agreement: Security or Sale of Assets?

    Lenders and other members of the factoring community should be aware of the potential impact of a recent ruling on a priority fight over the accounts receivable of a bankrupt company.  One of the issues that the court had to consider was the application of a factoring agreement.

     
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  • Info from Visa

    What is expected of a credit manager when a customer claims that he was a victim of identity theft, and the debt is not his?

     
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  • PPSA & Legislative Q's
     
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  • Role of the Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy (OSB)

    The Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy (OSB) is part of Industry Canada. Their role is to ensure public confidence in the market place by protecting the integrity of the bankruptcy and insolvency system.

     
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  • BIA compared to the CCAA

    The Companies' Creditors Arrangement Act (CCAA) is a federal law allowing insolvent corporations that owe their creditors in excess of $5 million to restructure their business and financial affairs. Under the CCAA, corporations ask the Court for protection while they prepare ...

     
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  • The 4C's of Credit for Business

    Credit people look carefully at trade accounts, especially in tough financial times, before they ship goods. What credit managers look for can be...

     
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  • Credit application Terms

    Here is a list of items that are commonly included in B2B credit applications.

     
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  • Credit Rules (Axioms)

    If short-term credit suppliers are paid by asset conversions, then the primary interest should be centered on the balance sheet and their focus of attention should be liquidity.

     
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  • PPSA Registrations - Is this the Weakness in Your Armour?

    As the saying goes, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. This expression is particularly apt when it comes to secured creditors and their registrations under the Ontario Personal Property Security Act (the "PPSA"). Although "getting it right the first time" has always been the mantra of secured creditors, the economic roller coaster ride of recent months has heightened the need to ensure a properly perfected secured claim.

     
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  • Risk Assessment

    Risk assessment is a step in a risk management procedure. Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a concrete situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard). Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R):, the magnitude of the potential loss (L), and the probability (p) that the loss will occur.

     
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  • Credit Risk Management

    Credit risk is defined as the likelihood of loss resulting from a customer's failure to pay for the goods delivered. It is the responsibility a Credit Manager to verify that all customer files are complete and contain all the necessary information to protect the accounts receivable.

     
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  • PPSA

    The Personal Property Security Act ("PPSA") is the name given to each of the statutes passed by all common law provinces, as well as the territories, of Canada. They regulate the creation and registration of...

     
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  • Hypothec

    Hypothec Definition: - Is a charge on property upon which an unpaid creditor may enforce payment of the debt.  It is the right of a creditor to take a...

     
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  • The Quickening of Innovation in Asset Based Financing

    Some would call it evolution: others, revolution. Semantic flourishes aside, financial technologies are increasingly in the foreground as drivers of product differentiation and proliferation in the asset-based financing industry.

     
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  • Direct payments and construction insolvency
    Main contractor Carillion’s entry into liquidation has resulted in many employers seeking to establish relationships with subcontractors, under which they will be paid directly in order to stay on site and finish the relevant project. On the face of it, this seems like an attractive solution, and may leave some employers wondering why they didn’t procure their projects by construction management in the first place. However, establishing direct relations is not without risks, and requires safeguards for employers and subcontractors alike. Those are set out in the last section of this article, but it is important to understand the pitfalls, particularly of direct payment, first.
     
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  • Is Client Service at Risk of Being Displaced by Technology?

    Nowadays, money transfer services have taken on an entirely new complexion in the financial markets. For starters, traditional banks and the international money transfer services they offer to clients are no longer cost-effective, or efficient. In the United Kingdom, there are several ranking money transfer services used by clients, including World First and Transferwise. Contrary to popular belief, FinTech does not eliminate the face-to-face communication or human-voiced support of traditional international currency transfer services; it enhances the efficiency of the services to ensure a seamless experience for clients.

     
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  • Do You Have a Credit Policy for Your Organization?

    If your business lets your customers receive goods or services now in return for a promise to pay later, then your business grants credit. And you are not alone. Most businesses grant a credit to their customers, especially if their customers are other businesses (B2B—business-to-business). In fact, this is the most common type of credit offered in the business world and most of the credit offered in this way is unsecured.

     
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Q and A (2)
  • We see more and more public companies partially or completely reorganizing as Income Trusts. What are the advantages and disadvantages to the company and what could the ramifications be to trade creditors? Is there anything we should be questioning or looking for in this type of transaction?
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/qa/4

    An income trust (the "Trust") is essentially an investment vehicle which a corporation (the "Corporation") can establish in order to divert and distribute its revenues in a generally more tax efficient manner to the investors of the Trust.

    While the pros and cons of establishing an income trust are largely tax driven, extremely complex and beyond the scope of this forum, income trusts basically operate by taking the monies raised by the Trust from its investors and loaning them to the Corporation. Such loan can either be on a secured or an unsecured basis. Revenues from the Corporation's operations are then paid to the Trust in order to service the loan with those monies then being available for distribution to the Trust's investors.

    The typical structure sees virtually all of the Corporation's distributable income paid out without corporate tax because the income is being used to service the Corporation's debt (e.g., the loan from the Trust). If the investors of the Trust are tax-exempt entities such as RRSPs or pension funds, payments to them from the Trust will be received on a more favourable tax basis than if the monies were distributed as dividends.

    While the establishment of the Trust will not alter the manner in which the Corporation carries on its business (note that the Trust does not carry on business - it is simply an investment vehicle), the difference is that with the establishment of the Trust, the Corporation has a new and typically large creditor (being the Trust) whose debt must be serviced by the Corporation.

    From the perspective of companies doing business with the Corporation and extending credit to the Corporation, while the creation of the Trust in and of itself will not negatively impact upon the Corporation's ability to carry on its business, companies doing business with the Corporation may be at a greater risk should the Corporation subsequently run into financial difficulties. Aside from the Corporation having less flexibility to refinance since cash flow will be committed to debt service on the monies owing to the Trust (and other lenders), the Trust represents a new creditor which did not previously exist. If the Trust's loan to the Corporation is made on a secured basis, the Trust will be entitled to recover its monies prior to all of the Corporation's unsecured creditors, thereby diminishing the pool of funds available to the unsecured creditors. Similarly, secured creditors are at risk to the extent that the Trust's security has priority over their security. If the Trust's loan to the Corporation is made on an unsecured basis, the Trust will be another unsecured creditor sharing in the monies available to the unsecured creditors, meaning less monies will be available for the unsecured creditors had the Trust not been created.

  • Is there a timing difference from the time a security agreement is registered and perfected?
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/qa/5

    They can happen at the same time or at different times depending on the situation. If there are no competing securities registered, a security document can be registered and perfected at the same time. If there are competing securities, a security agreement can be registered one day, but perfection may not take place until the other secured parties are notified.

Wiki (8)
  • Receiver
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/62
    A person who has taken possession pursuant to a security agreement of substantially all of the inventory, accounts receivables or the other property of the debtor. Receiver also includes a person who has been appointed privately pursuant to a security agreement or by an order of the court for the protection or collection of property that is the subject of diverse claims, usually to seize and sell the property of the debtor.
  • Collateral
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/10
    Property that is pledged as security against a debt.
  • Security
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/66
    Property or asset given or pledged to guarantee the fulfillment of an obligation, e.g., for the payment of a loan.
  • Preference
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/54
    The payment of money or the granting of security by a debtor that benefits one or more creditors to the detriment of the other creditors.
  • Advance notice
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/2
    A legal document under the Act whereby a secured creditor provides 10 days notice to an insolvent debtor of its intention to enforce its security.
  • Secured Creditor
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/65
    A person holding an instrument such as a mortgage or hypothecary claim, a lien or preference on or against the whole or part of the property of a debtor as security for a debt due to him from the debtor.
  • Ordinary creditor
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/47
    A creditor with no priority or security under the Act.
  • Mortgage
    https://creditedu.org/knowledgecentre/index.php/site/wiki/43
    A conveyance of title to property that is given as security for the payment of a debt. NOTE: In the province of Quebec, it is a real right on property securing the performance of an obligation, without relinquishment of its owner.